Association between urinary community-acquired fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and neighbourhood antibiotic consumption: a population-based case-control study.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2019. 19(4): pp. 419-428.
Low M, Neuberger A, Hooton TM, Green MS, Raz R, Balicer RD, Almog R.
Background: It is unknown whether increased use of antibiotics in a community increases the risk of acquiring antibiotic resistance by individuals living in that community, regardless of prior individual antibiotic consumption and other risk factors for antibiotic resistance.
Methods: We used a hierarchical multivariate logistic regression approach to evaluate the association between neighbourhood fluoroquinolone consumption and individual risk of colonisation or infection of the urinary tract with fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli. We did a population-based case-control study of adults (aged ≥22 years) living in 1733 predefined geographical statistical areas (neighbourhoods) in Israel. A multilevel study design was used to analyse data derived from electronic medical records of patients enrolled in the Clalit state-mandated health service.
Findings: 300 105 events with E coli growth and 1 899 168 cultures with no growth were identified from medical records and included in the analysis. 45 427 (16·8%) of 270 190 women and 8835 (29·5%) of 29 915 men had fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli events. We found an independent association between residence in a neighbourhood with higher antibiotic consumption and an increased risk of bacteriuria caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli. Odds ratios (ORs) for the quintiles with higher neighbourhood consumption (compared with the lowest quintile) were 1·15 (95% CI 1·06-1·24), 1·31 (1·20-1·43), 1·41 (1·29-1·54), and 1·51 (1·38-1·65) for women, and 1·17 (1·02-1·35), 1·24 (1·06-1·45), 1·35 (1·15-1·59), and 1·50 (1·26-1·77) for men. Results remained significant when the analysis was restricted to patients who had not consumed fluoroquinolones themselves.
Interpretation: These data suggest that increased use of antibiotics in specific geographical areas is associated with an increased personal risk of acquiring antibiotic-resistant bacteria, independent of personal history of antibiotic consumption and other known risk factors for antimicrobial resistance.